HISTORY

 

Timeline

1866
Congress approves the enlistment of African – American soldiers in the regular Army, resulting in the formation of the 9thand 10th Cavalry and the 24th and 25th Infantry Regiments.
1867
African – American regiments are sent to the Western Frontier.
1877
Lieutenant Henry O. Flipper becomes the first African – American to graduate from
West Point and the first African – American Officer in any of the Buffalo Soldiers regiments.

1953
All Fighting units in the American Armed Forces are integrated.
1992
The Buffalo Soldiers Monument is unveiled At Fort Leavenworth, Kansas.

Important People

Henry O. Flipper
(1856-1940)
First African – American to graduate from the U.S. Military Academy at West Point and serve as an officer in the 10th Cavalry.

Colonel Benjamin H. Grierson
(1826-1911)
Commander of the 10th Cavalry for 22 years.

Colonel Edward Hatch
(1832-1889)
Commander of the 9th Cavalry for 23 years.

General Colin L. Powell
(1937- )
First African – American four-star general of the United States and chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff; through his efforts, a memorial to the Buffalo Soldiers was built at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas.

General Fred A. Gorden
(1940-)
First Black Commandant of cadets of the U.S. Military Academy at West Point.

Buffalo Soldiers – History

African Americans have fought in military conflicts since colonial days. However, the Buffalo Soldiers, comprised of former slaves, freemen and Black Civil War soldiers, were the first to serve during peacetime.

Once the Westward movement had begun, prominent among those blazing treacherous trails of the Wild West were the Buffalo Soldiers of the U.S. Army. These African Americans were charged with and responsible for escorting settlers, cattle herds, and railroad crews. The 9th and 10th Cavalry Regiments also conducted campaigns against American Indian tribes on a western frontier that extended from Montana in the Northwest to Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona in the Southwest. Throughout the era of the Indian Wars, approximately twenty percent of the U.S. Cavalry troopers were Black, and they fought over 177 engagements. The combat prowess, bravery, tenaciousness, and looks on the battlefield, inspired the
Indians to call them “Buffalo Soldiers.” Many Indians believe the name symbolized the Native American’s respect for the Buffalo Soldiers’ bravery and valor. Buffalo Soldiers, down through the years, have worn the name with pride.

Buffalo Soldiers participated in many other military campaigns: The Spanish American War, The Philippine Insurrection, The Mexican Expedition, World War I, World War II, and the Korean Police Action.

Much have changed since the days of the Buffalo Soldiers, including the integration of all military servicemen and women. However, the story of the Buffalo Soldiers remain one of unsurpassed courage and patriotism, and will be forever a significant part of the history of America.

African Americans have fought with distinction in all of this country’s military engagements. However, some of their most notable contributions and sacrifices came during the Civil War. During that conflict, more than 180,000 African Americans wore the Union Army blue. Another 30,000 served in the Navy, and 200,000 served as workers on labor, engineering, hospital and other military support projects. More than 33,000 of these gallant soldiers gave their lives for the sake of freedom and their country.

Shortly after the Civil War, Congress authorized the formation of the 9th and 10th Cavalry and the 38th, 39th, 40th, and 41st Infantry Regiments: Six all Black peacetime units. Later the four infantry regiments were merged into the 24th and 25th Infantries.

During the western expansion the Buffalo Soldiers were tasked with the responsibility of enforcement and  protection, which led them to various encounters with Native Americans.  Their honorable heroic actions in diplomacy and battle earned them respect from the Native Americans, which in turn, the soldiers received a name in accordance with Native American culture. They were referred to as “Buffalo.”  Knowing how the Native American nations of the Plains revered the Buffalo, the soldiers recognized the name as a sign of respect and they accepted the name with pride and became known and referred to as the Buffalo Soldier.

At least 18 Medals of Honor were presented to Buffalo Soldiers during the Western Campaigns. Similarly, 23 African Americans received the nation’s highest military award during the Civil War.